Symβiosis aims to provide resources, commentaries and analysis, on political, social and cultural ideas and developments affecting change and policy, original and creative, based on arguments, able to propose and debate solutions to critical issues, maintaining a broad intellectual scope and global reach that readers need to understand the choices shaping lives, and reflecting on Greece, the Balkans, Europe and the world.


Europe in crisis: the TINA situation

europe in crisis the tina situation memoria largeQüestions CIDOB, núm. 14

Oleguer Sarsanedas interviews Elina Viilup, Research Fellow, CIDOB
The European Union is experiencing the worst crisis since its foundation --to the limit, in the case of some member countries. This is a crisis that came from outside the Union, basically as collateral damage from globalization (the emerging countries’ demand surge for financing, and the fall-out from the US financial mess), but it has unearthed some serious structural defects in the European construction. This is also a crisis that strengthens distrust in elected
bodies, favors fringe parties and the appeal of populist ideas, and encourages civil protests and extra-parliamentary channels of representation/participation.
Elina Viilup describes the present situation as confusing. Simultaneous, contradictory forces are at play: on the one hand, the power and the decisions in Europe have shifted towards the capitals of the big member countries (especially Berlin); on the other hand, steps are being taken (towards a fiscal union, for example) which seem to be leading unequivocally to a federalizing political union.


The EU Summit on Energy: Europe must show the way to a sustainable global energy policy – who else?

In preparation for the EU Summit on Energy of the European Heads of State and Government on 4 February 2011, German Federal Chancellor Merkel recently invited the CEOs of the four major German energy corporations and other industry bosses to the Chancellery. Freed from the fetters of the Grand Coalition, the Chancellor no longer thought it necessary to invite the bosses of the green electricity sector– as she had done before the energy summits in 2006 - 2007. This is remarkable inasmuch as the "green power" producers announced at the first energy summit in 2006 that they would be investing EUR 40 billion by 2012, compared to their conventional competitors' EUR 30 billion.


Debating Multiculturalism

Europe's Reaction in Context

Jan Rath is a Professor of Sociology, Director of the Institute for Ethnic and Migration Studies (IMES), and Head of the Department of Sociology and Anthropology at the University of Amsterdam, and European Chair of International Metropolis.


Turkey and the Identity of Europe

Contemporary Identity Politics in the European Frontier

Constantine Arvanitopoulos is the Professor of International Relations at Panteion University, Athens, Greece. His research interests lie with International Relations theory, specifically the study of regime change, European Politics and US Foreign Policy Analysis. He has taught courses on theory and methodology of International Relations, European Politics, and Comparative Politics.


Turkey’s Membership in the EU: Realistic or Merely Wishful?

Professor Bahri Yilmaz is the owner of the Jean Monnet Chair at Sabancı University in Istanbul. He was a visiting fellow at Pembroke College, Cambridge and at the Center for European Studies  Harvard University. In addition to his academic experience, he has worked as the Chief Advisor to the Ministry of State for European Union Affairs in Ankara (1997-2002). His main fields of research and teaching interest focuses on European Union, International Political Economy, the newly emerging markets, and globalization.


Islam: A Scapegoat for Europe’s Decadence

How Muslims Have Been Taken Hostage by Europe’s Most Acute Civilizational Crisis Since WWII

Raphaël Liogier is the director of the Observatoire du religieux ( and a University Professor in Sociology and Theory of Knowledge at the Institute for Political Studies of Aix-en-Provence [7] in France (Science Po Aix). His last book, Souci de Soi, Conscience du Monde : Self Care, World Awareness, deals with the different aspects of the current individualization and globalization of beliefs.


Europe Was Yesterday

Mabel Berezin is the Professor and Chair of Sociology at Cornell University, is a political sociologist whose work explores the intersection of political and cultural institutions with an emphasis on modern and contemporary Europe. She is the author of Illiberal Politics in Neoliberal Times: Culture, Security, and Populism in the New Europe (Cambridge University Press, 2009) and Making the Fascist Self: The Political Culture of Inter-war Italy (Cornell 1997), and editor with Martin Schain of Europe Without Borders: Re-mapping Territory, Citizenship and Identity in a Transnational Age (Johns Hopkins University Press, 2003).