Symβiosis aims to provide resources, commentaries and analysis, on political, social and cultural ideas and developments affecting change and policy, original and creative, based on arguments, able to propose and debate solutions to critical issues, maintaining a broad intellectual scope and global reach that readers need to understand the choices shaping lives, and reflecting on Greece, the Balkans, Europe and the world.




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Fundamental rights at land borders: findings from selected European Union border crossing points

Date added: 11/26/2014
Date modified: 11/26/2014
Filesize: 1.86 MB
Downloads: 896

Millions of people enter the European Union (EU) every year by land. Most of them do so at official border crossing points, travelling by private car or bus. This report deals with the work of border guards at such official border crossing points. It describes how border checks may affect the fundamental rights of passengers. Several reports by international and non-governmental organisations analyse the fundamental rights implications for asylum seekers and undocumented migrants apprehended after having entered an EU Member State in an irregular manner, for example by crossing a forest, river or field that forms the borderline. Far less literature looks at respect for fundamental rights during border checks at regular crossing points. Many of the rights and principles included in the EU Charter of Fundamental Rights are relevant to border checks. The EU provides Member States with considerable support in the field of border management. They can tap into funding mechanisms that enhance, for example, their infrastructure at border crossing points. Frontex, the EU agency set up to support Member States in border management, provides training, guidance materials and hands-on support through the operations they coordinate. All actions taken at EU level to support Member States' external border management should incorporate the promotion of fundamental rights compliance as a core objective.
This report appears as the EU is starting to implement the revised mechanism to evaluate compliance with the Schengen acquis by those EU Member States and Schengen Associated Countries which are part of the Schengen area. Evaluations cover all aspects of the Schengen acquis, with border management being a central component. As the revised Schengen evaluation mechanism gives more importance to fundamental rights, this report can serve to point to concrete fundamental rights issues impacting on border checks which may be looked at during evaluations.
Together with two European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights (FRA) sister reports resulting from its project on the treatment of third-country nationals at the EU's external borders, this report's findings serve to inform EU-level and Member State practitioners and policy makers of fundamental rights challenges that can
emerge in particular at land border crossing points. Increased awareness should help to create a shared understanding among border guards of what fundamental rights obligations mean for their daily work, ultimately enhancing fundamental rights compliance at the EU's external borders.
Morten Kjaerum

Handbook on European law relating to asylum, borders and immigration

Date added: 07/14/2014
Date modified: 07/14/2014
Filesize: 2.86 MB
Downloads: 1218

In March 2011, as a result of their first joint project, the European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights and the European Court of Human Rights launched a handbook on European law in the field of non-discrimination. Following the positive feedback received, it was decided to pursue this collaboration in another very topical area where equally there was felt to be a need for a comprehensive guide to the case law of the European Court of Human Rights, the Court of Justice of the European Union as well as to relevant EU regulations and directives. The present handbook seeks to provide an overview of the various European standards relevant to asylum,borders and immigration.
The handbook is intended for lawyers, judges, prosecutors, border guards, immigration officials and others working with national authorities, as well as nongovernmental organisations and other bodies that may be confronted with legal questions in any of the areas the handbook sets out to cover.
With the entry into force of the Lisbon Treaty in December 2009, the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union became legally binding. The Lisbon Treaty also provides for EU accession to the European Convention on Human Rights, which is legally binding on all member states of the EU and the Council of Europe.
Improving the understanding of common principles developed in the case law of the two European courts, and in EU regulations and directives is essential for the proper implementation of relevant standards, thereby ensuring the full respect of fundamental rights at national level. It is our hope that this handbook will serve to further this important objective.

The State of Environmental Migration 2011

Date added: 12/07/2012
Date modified: 12/07/2012
Filesize: 12.28 MB
Downloads: 1402

Edited by
François Gemenne (IDDRI)
Pauline Brücker (IDDRI)
Dina Ionesco (IOM)

Institut du développement durable et des relations internationales


While scientific research on environmental migration has considerably expended over recent years, The State of Environmental Migration once again gathers and documents major cases of environmentally-induced migration and displacement that happened during the year 2011. It is meant to feed scholar studies and eventually political discussions. The existence itself of this volume underscores the importance of the subject, but also the complexity of the phenomenon. As we stressed last year in the 2010 edition of The State of Environmental Migration, diversity and universality are common features of environmental migration: be they labeled migrants or refugees, affected by human-made or natural events, all those migrating or being displaced seek protection, livelihood and opportunities for a safer future.

Policy brief: Social Impact of Emigration and Rural-Urban Migration in Central and Eastern Europe

Date added: 11/20/2012
Date modified: 11/20/2012
Filesize: 669.02 kB
Downloads: 1298

Gesellschaft für Versicherungswissenschaft und -gestaltung e.V. (GVG)
Contact person: Birgit Garbe-Emden,

This policy brief is based on the findings from the study “Social Impact of Emigration and Rural-Urban Migration in Central and Eastern Europe” which draws on 25 country reports and a synthesis report. These findings allow the development of tailor-made policy directions to mitigate the adverse effects of migration on the migrants and the social development in the sending countries and to strengthen the positive effects. This policy brief will support the countries and European institutions to decide on priorities, funding and partners in addressing the challenges described in the study. It is without saying that policies should be balanced between internal reforms in the country – improving living conditions for all people and thus discouraging emigration – and policies with the explicit aim to make migration as beneficial as possible. In this context it is important to strengthen the transnational policy nexus between sending and receiving countries.
As in the synthesis report, the policy recommendations are grouped along three regions taking into account the EU policy approach towards these countries and the different financial instruments of the EU. It is clear that some of the policy responses for one region might be also applicable in another region.

Social Impact of Emigration and Rural-Urban Migration in Central and Eastern Europe

Date added: 11/20/2012
Date modified: 11/20/2012
Filesize: 2.82 MB
Downloads: 1775

Nathalie Bélorgey
Birgit Garbe-Emden
Sabine Horstmann
Andrea Kuhn
Dita Vogel
Paul Stubbs (The Institute of Economics, Zagreb)

The present study has been undertaken on behalf of the European Commission within the
framework of the PROGRESS programme for employment and social solidarity 2007-2013. It seeks to provide a comparative knowledge assessment on international and internal migration in Central and Eastern Europe and a policy-oriented analysis of the impacts of migration on employment and the social and territorial cohesion of the migration source countries in the region in the last two decades.
So far, analyses of the social impacts of migration have primarily focussed on migration destination countries, in particular as regards the consequences of migration for the labour markets and social protection systems of the receiving countries, without taking much into account the point of view of migration source countries. One of the most researched topics in relation to migrant source countries are remittances sent by migrants to their families and relatives at home. Aspects relating to the development potential of the Diaspora and return migration as well as to the impacts of migration on migrants' skills have also attracted growing attention in recent years. Besides this, trends and patterns of migration have been relatively well studied so far - despite the lack of reliable data - and some research on employment, poverty and social inclusion in the migrant-sending countries in the scope of this study also exists. A linkage between migration and the situation of poverty and social inclusion in the migration source countries, however, has not been made and a more comprehensive analysis on the social impacts of migration has been missing to date. The findings of the analysis help to bring the perspectives of the migration source countries into the EU migration debate(s) and to identify the key challenges of migration relevant for (the EU Common Objectives for) social protection and social inclusion, in particular in terms of poverty eradication, participation in the labour market, accessible social protection and social services, and social cohesion On the basis of identified challenges, the report provides policy suggestions for addressing the impacts of migration which might be taken into account by the national and regional authorities of migration source countries and by the EU in setting priority policies for the forthcoming programming period and preparing investments within the Multi-Annual Financial Framework for 2014-2020.
The results of the research are compiled into a Synthesis Report, which is based on 25 country reports elaborated by expert teams of the respective countries in the period from November 2010 until April 2012. It encompasses the 10 countries of Central and Eastern Europe which joined the EU in 2004 and 2007 (Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Romania, Slovak Republic, Slovenia)1, the candidate countries and potential candidates of the Western Balkans (Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia,
Kosovo*2, Montenegro, the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Serbia) and the countries of the Eastern Partnership region (Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Moldova, Ukraine) as well as Greece and Turkey.