Symβiosis aims to provide resources, commentaries and analysis, on political, social and cultural ideas and developments affecting change and policy, original and creative, based on arguments, able to propose and debate solutions to critical issues, maintaining a broad intellectual scope and global reach that readers need to understand the choices shaping lives, and reflecting on Greece, the Balkans, Europe and the world.




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Windfall Gains of the EU Membership Process

Date added: 12/06/2010
Date modified: 12/06/2010
Filesize: 43.88 kB
Downloads: 750

Refik Erzan
Bogazici University, Istanbul
Turkey - EU Observatory 2007
June 14-15, Istanbul

Turkish economy demonstrated a remarkable performance in the aftermath of the 2000/2001 crisis and the subsequent reforms. Together with the IMF, the EU has provided an important anchor in this process. In addition, the decision to start membership negotiations in December 2004 and the implementation of this decision in October 2005 gave a major boost to the Turkish economy, particularly in terms of FDI. The purpose of this essay is to highlight the essential anchor role of the EU for sustained high growth in Turkey, and, the difference that high growth makes in transforming Turkey into a very attractive prize for the EU.

Why the EU is not yet a mature development partner

Date added: 05/28/2010
Date modified: 07/06/2010
Filesize: 161.7 kB
Downloads: 646
Nils-Sjard Schulz

At the heart of current global development policies, the partnership paradigm shows how donors and developing countries relate to each other: on the basis of joint agreements on individual and mutual commitments. The partnership paradigm helped to overcome aid fatigue and disenchantment with the often disastrous outcomes of the previous paradigm; the Washington Consensus and its Structural Adjustment Programmes. Initiated with a rethinking at the DAC level and new policy frameworks at the World Bank, donors and recipients of aid (re-dubbed ‘partner countries’) engaged in the design of the new development architecture, clarifying aims (in the 2000  Millennium Development Goals, which include a global partnership for development), resources (in the 2002 Monterrey Consensus) and practices for delivery (in the 2005 Paris Declaration). More consistent leadership of the developing countries and better donor contributions to their development processes – within a strengthened mutual accountability – have helped to create a better partnership and have ultimately enhanced development results.

Why the EU fails?

Date added: 06/29/2010
Date modified: 07/06/2010
Filesize: 373.52 kB
Downloads: 694
Learning from past experiences to succeed better next time

Toby Archer, Timo Behr, Tuulia Nieminen (editors)
Finnish Institute of International Affairs

As the European Union opens a new chapter in its  turbulent history, considering where and why the Union  has failed in the past is crucial. To this end, the FIIA  convened a high-level conference in Helsinki in  December 2009 entitled Why the EU fails. This report  combines a selection of contributions to the conference with additional articles, which together provide a snapshot of EU failure in different areas.
In their contributions, the writers suggest that the reasons for EU failure are discernible at a number of different levels including: the EU’s incomplete and ineffective institutional structure; the faltering commitment of the member states to the European project; the pursuit of misguided and suboptimal policies as a result of the EU’s lowest common denominator approach; and an unfavourable international environment.
Together, these contributions provide a valuable overview of the complex nature of EU failure and offer some tentative recommendations for future improvements. Ultimately, continuous self-reflection and a more thorough analysis of the failures suggested in this report will be necessary if the European project is to go forward.

ISBN 978-951-769-270-0
ISSN 1458-994X

Understanding and preventing discriminatory ethnic profiling: A guide

Date added: 11/13/2011
Date modified: 11/13/2011
Filesize: 640.38 kB
Downloads: 683

11/10/2010 - October 2010Understanding and preventing discriminatory ethnic profiling: A guide

When a decision to stop an individual is motivated solely or mainly by virtue of a person's race, ethnicity or religion, this constitutes discriminatory ethnic profiling. Such practices can serve to alienate certain communities in the EU, and in turn can contribute to inefficient policing. The FRA guide aims to help the police address and avoid discriminatory ethnic profiling, and is designed to be used as a tool for more effective policing.


‘Ethnic profiling' is not a new practice in the Member States of the European Union, but it appears to have become more prominent in reaction to the terrorist bombings in the United States of America (USA, 2001), Madrid (2004) and London (2005), as well as increased concerns over illegal immigration. The guide gives insight on how to understand and prevent the discriminatory practice of ethnic profiling.

The FRA interviewed 23,500 people with an ethnic minority and immigrant background about their experiences of police stops, and in ten Member States the majority population was also interviewed to be able to compare findings. Read more on the EU-MIDIS mini-site.

FRA Director Morten Kjaerum: "Evidence shows that in a number of EU Member States a person belonging to a minority is more likely to be stopped by the police than a person belonging to the majority population. This finding highlights the problem of potentially discriminatory ethnic profiling practices, which can be in conflict with laws relating to discrimination." Read more in the press release.

The European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights (FRA) is publishing on 11 October, at a Symposium of the European Police College (CEPOL), results from the first EU-wide survey on police stops and minorities.

Ukraine, the European Union and the International Community

Date added: 09/23/2010
Date modified: 09/23/2010
Filesize: 996.86 kB
Downloads: 821
Ukraine, the European Union and the International Community: Current Challenges and the Agenda for Overcoming the Stalemate
Authors: Vasily Astrov, Igor Burakovsky, Grzegorz Gromadzki, Peter Havlik, Vasyl Yurchyshyn

Ukraine was confronted with an unprecedented economic and financial crisis during 2008-2009. That crisis has until recently been compounded by a highly unstable political situation. The European Union, Ukraine's neighbours and the international community have been concerned about possible repercussions of these developments on the stability of the whole region. The February 2010 presidential elections brought more political stability and Ukraine's economic situation markedly improved as well. In this context, the Austrian Ministry of Finance and the Vienna Institute for International Economic Studies (wiiw) organized an international expert seminar dealing with these issues in June 2010.

The report starts with a summary of deliberations at the Vienna seminar. Next, the background study on the Ukraine's current economic and political situation, prepared for the seminar by wiiw (Vasily Astrov) is presented. The background study is followed by two contributions on future challenges from leading Ukrainian scholars (Igor Burakovsky and Vasily Yurchyshyn). Last but not least, reflections on Ukraine's-EU political and economic relations by Grzegorz Gromadzki, independent expert from Warsaw, are included as well. An extensive annex with recent statistical data on Ukraine is enclosed.